These domains can be further divided into Sub domain disciplines. There are four architecture domains that are commonly accepted as subsets of an overall enterprise architecture: Business Architecture Defines the business strategy, governance, organization, and key business processes. Align to ITSM practices. Failures will occur and perfect security is impossible to achieve, so it is important to balance prevention measures with detection and response functions. The paper was about using the ISA framework to describe, “...the overall information system and how it relates to the enterprise and its surrounding environment.” The word enterprise was used as a synonym for business. There are at least two domains, "Business Modeling" and "Current Systems and Technology", which can be further broken down into "Data Architecture… Users should have confidence that their interactions with applications will not harm them. Enterprise Architecture works to support this goal through the development of data models and documentation, data access policies, and data governance processes. The architecture was split into technology, applications, information, and business domains. Optimize for the entire user journey and experience. Enterprise Architecture works to define, design and align the sum of Harvard’s physical and virtual infrastructure to ensure efficient and effective support of business applications. It takes … Layers are filters for the overall view of architecture, kind of a grouping of like artifacts to support the entire architecture for the focused view. Think of an enterprise as a collection of organizations that have a common set of goals in delivering products or services to their market. "Although many popular information systems planning methodologies, design approaches, and various tools and techniques do not preclude or are not inconsistent with enterprise-level analysis, few of them explicitly address or attempt to define enterprise architectures. Source systems should export data in a single format. BRM (Build-Run-Manage) Framework - an architecture framework created by Sanjeev "Sunny" Mishra during his early days at IBM in 2000. Business Architecture to Other Layers; Business Architecture to Support; Class Documentation - Business Architecture Layer Most modern EA frameworks (e.g. In 2001, the US Chief CIO council published A practical guide to Federal Enterprise Architecture, which starts, “An enterprise architecture (EA) establishes the Agency-wide roadmap to achieve an Agency’s mission through optimal performance of its core business processes within an efficient information technology (IT) environment." User Experience is a core consideration when designing, selecting, and delivering tools and services to the Harvard community. Data Architecture … ... Has both a comprehensive taxonomy and an architectural process - can be viewed as either a methodology for creating an enterprise architecture or the result of applying that process to a particular enterprise … Select and build applications that comply with contemporary development, operations, and support practices. Identify failures modes and design accordingly. In addition, supportability and total cost of ownership are considerations that the IT community requires. Design and expect failure; routine failure should not impact availability. There should be multiple vendor or open source implementations for vendor-supplied interfaces. With a layered architecture, applications can enforce restrictions on which layers can communicate with other layers. , In 1996, the US IT Management Reform Act, more commonly known as the Clinger-Cohen Act, repeatedly directed that a US federal government agency's investment in IT must be mapped to identifiable business benefits. Reuse common capabilities and automate repetitive processes. For example, let's say a corporation called TechToYou has a department that focuses on developing hardware devices, another that develops software for those devices and yet another that is responsible … An often cited source when talking about the subject of EA layers is [WS08], who analyzed The Open Group Architecture Framework version 8.1 (TOGAF), the Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework version 1.1 (FEAF) and the ARIS Framework, with regards to the EA layers … Source systems should provide data in only one format. Technology Layer (generic hardware, network and platform applications offering platform services to each other and to business applications). Usually, an overarching enterprise architecture process, composed of phases, broken into lower-level processes composed of finer grained activities. It was not an EA framework as we see it now, but it helped to establish the notion of dividing EA into architecture domains or layers. Camarinha-Matos, H. Afsarmanesh, Collaborative Networks: Reference Modeling, Springer, 2008. This layer is very powerful and is arguably the most comprehensive layer in any of the enterprise architecture tools - this is purposely done to enable you to answer complex enterprise architecture focused questions about your information and data architecture… Simply stated, enterprise architecture framework (EAF) refers to any framework, process, or methodology which informs how to create and use an enterprise architecture.So, what is enterprise architecture?At a high level, enterprise architecture offers a comprehensive approach and holistic view of IT throughout an enterprise. The four commonly accepted domains of enterprise architecture are: Business architecture domain – describes how the enterprise is organizationally structured and what functional capabilities are necessary to deliver the business vision… , In 2011, the TOGAF 9.1. specification says: "Business planning at the strategy level provides the initial direction to enterprise architecture. This helps to achieve encapsulation. Data transformation for common data assets is performed the smallest number of times, ideally once. The standard defines an architecture framework as conventions, principles and practices for the description of architectures established within a specific domain of application and/or community of stakeholders, and proposes an architecture framework is specified by: Architecture frameworks conforming to the standard can include additional methods, tools, definitions, and practices beyond those specified. Contemporary trends in computing have enlarged this concept to include difficult-to-implement but common capabilities such as authentication, authorization, access control, API management, security management, monitoring, logging, and other capabilities. Business Architecture Tutorials; Key Classes and Relationships. Enterprise architecture is unique to every organization, however, there are some common elements. Transform data the least number of times and into the smallest number of different formats. Be open to SaaS integrations. TOGAF, ASSIMPLER, EAF) include most of the above. US Department of the Treasury Chief Information Officer Council (2000). An enterprise architecture framework (EA framework) defines how to create and use an enterprise architecture. Generalised Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology, Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework, Treasury Enterprise Architecture Framework, Colombian Enterprise Architecture Framework, Marco de Referencia de Arquitectura Empresarial, Sherwood Applied Business Security Architecture, Extended Enterprise Architecture Framework, Service-oriented modeling framework (SOMF), Architecture patterns (EA reference architecture), Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework Version 1.1, Department of Defense Technical Reference Model, A brief history of EA: what is in it and what is not, TOGAF® 9.1 > Part II: Architecture Development Method (ADM) > Preliminary Phase, TOGAF® 9.1 > Part II: Architecture Development Method (ADM) > Introduction to the ADM, FEA Consolidated Reference Model Document, Engineering Enterprise Architecture: Call to Action, Enterprise Architecture Frameworks: The Fad of the Century, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Enterprise_architecture_framework&oldid=988125893, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Use an API versioning system to manage API changes and indicate compatibility levels. Here are some examples: enterprise business architect, enterprise documentational architect, enterprise application architect, enterprise infrastructure architect, enterprise information architect, etc. Provide the means for migrating to a Cloud infrastructure. Interfaces must be documented using standard languages. In 1993, Stephen Spewak's book Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP) defined a process for defining architectures for the use of information in support of the business and the plan for implementing those architectures. Since the early 1990s, there have been a number of efforts to define standard approaches for describing and analyzing system architectures. The domains higher in the stack were built on top of and depended upon the lower layers. "If you deploy SOA-based technology before yo… Make every effort to leverage cloud infrastructure first. Many of the recent Enterprise Architecture frameworks have some kind of set of views defined, but these sets are not always called view models. Enterprise architecture management (EAM) is a structured approach that an enterprise uses for creating, managing, and using enterprise architecture to align business and IT. Data Layer (Business information and other valuable stored data), Information System Layer (business applications offering information services to each other and to business functions). Enterprise Architecture Framework (EA Framework) is a formal definition of the essential elements or components of Enterprise Architecture, and their inter-relationship An Enterprise Architecture Framework is analogous to a mathematical equation or chemical formula in that it specifies the variables or elements, and their relationships required to solve the "practical model of enterprise… FEAF was a process much like TOGAF's ADM, in which “The architecture team generates a sequencing plan for the transition of systems, applications, and associated business practices predicated upon a detailed gap analysis [between baseline and target architectures].”. And many enterprise architects regard their business function/capability hierarchy/map as the fundamental Enterprise Architecture artifact. The TOGAF 9.1 specification clarified, that, "A complete enterprise architecture description should contain all four architecture domains (business, data, application, technology), but the realities of resource and time constraints often mean there is not enough time, funding, or resources to build a top-down, all-inclusive architecture description encompassing all four architecture domains, even if the enterprise scope is [...] less than the full extent of the overall enterprise.". The business mission is the primary driver. Business Architecture Meta Model; We have broken out the business layer relations as they are quite broad, the other layers are within the diagrams. What is the stack or layers of Enterprise Architecture? Select and build applications that include re-usable components. Every layers-based pattern for enterprise-architecture – such as in the common ‘three-architectures’ model popularised in TOGAF, Zachman, Archimate and elsewhere – represents an arbitrary set of overlays and assumptions onto the actual enterprise … the types of concerns arising in that domain, architecture viewpoints framing those concerns and. It was promoted within the U.S. federal government. Vendors apply the label, often speciously, to help sell their products. Consider total cost of ownership, time to market, vendor lock in and other criteria when making build/buy decisions. It structures architects' thinking by dividing the architecture description into domains, layers, or views, and offers models - typically matrices and diagrams - for documenting each view. " Normally, the business principles, business goals, and strategic drivers of the organization are defined elsewhere. Several enterprise architecture frameworks break down the practice of enterprise architecture into a number of practice areas or "domains" (also called viewpoints, layers or aspects). An enterprise is a business, company, firm, or group of any size that provides consumers with goods and/or services. Enterprise Architecture Domains (Figure 2. Many enterprise architecture teams consist of Individuals with Skills aligned with the Enterprise Architecture Domains and sub-domain disciplines. Finally the technology to implement the applications. In its latest version, the standard is published as ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010:2011. Favor AWS-native over vendor agnostic solutions except where ITSMspecific services are required (e.g. Harvard University Information Technology784 Memorial Drive, 2nd FloorCambridge, MA 02138. Combining data from disparate sources into meaningful and valuable information is increasingly important to effective support of business needs. Strategy Business Data Layer Application. The graphic shows a variation on this theme. Copyright © 2020 The President and Fellows of Harvard College, HARVARD UNIVERSITY INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY. Many EA frameworks combine data and application domains into a single (digitized) information system layer, sitting below the business (usually a human activity system) and above the technology (the platform IT infrastructure). Note that the applications architecture is about the choice of and relationships between applications in the enterprise's application portfolio, not about the internal architecture of a single application (which is often called application architecture). planning and implementing enterprise analysis to successfully execute on business strategies Minimize version changes to provide stability. A 2d flat version. The application and technology domains (not to be confused with business domains) are characterized by domain capabilities and domain services. Environment (the external entities and activities monitored, supported or directed by the business). Perhaps the best-known standard in the field of software architecture and system architecture started life as IEEE 1471, an IEEE Standard for describing the architecture of a software-intensive system approved in 2000. , In 1990, the term "Enterprise Architecture" was formally defined for the first time as an architecture that "defines and interrelates data, hardware, software, and communications resources, as well as the supporting organization required to maintain the overall physical structure required by the architecture".. Facilitate evolution with the technology to achieve greater value in both time and cost. Enterprise Architecture Planning is a data-centric approach to architecture planning. The Enterprise Architecture Reference Traditional Model offers a clear distinction between the architecture domains (business, information/data, application/integration and technical/infrastructure). There are several EA frameworks available that provide a structure for EA blueprints / models. " However, in this article the term "Enterprise Architecture" was mentioned only once without any specific definition and all subsequent works of Zachman used the term "Information Systems Architecture". Right up to version 7, TOGAF was still focused on defining and using a Technical Reference Model (or foundation architecture) to define the platform services required from the technologies that an entire enterprise uses to support business applications. Applications reflect the most direct alignment of Information Technology solutions to business requirements. In order to improve user productivity, reduce frustration, and increase effectiveness for all users, user experience methods and techniques are applied across the full systems development lifecycle, with a focus on: accessibility, ussbility, and mobility. Ensure the Cloud resources provide resiliency to customer applications. Then the data required to satisfy the mission. Ensure the accessibility and mobility of products. All data assets must be documented with descriptions and easily available to members of the Harvard Community. Make interactive systems equally operable for all users on all common devices, regardless of circumstances or limitations. Nowadays there are now countless EA frameworks, many more than in the following listing. The Class, subject and entity forms a hierarchical view of data. Organization of architects: guidance on the team structure and the governance of the team, including the skills, experience, and training needed. Provide the highest quality level of service to encourage universal Cloud adoption and buy-in. Continuously improve Cloud solutions and empower customers to take advantage of the full benefits of the Cloud. Browse the Documents. Favor SaaS, then COTS solutions before considering investments in customization and development efforts. In 1992, a paper by Zachman and Sowa started thus "John Zachman introduced a framework for information systems architecture (ISA) that has been widely adopted by systems analysts and database designers." , Since the 1970s people working in IS/IT have looked for ways to engage business people – to enable business roles and processes - and to influence investment in business information systems and technologies – with a view to the wide and long term benefits of the enterprise. Risk and security must be understood and applied across the whole system and not just within a specific layer. In 2002/3, in its Enterprise Edition, TOGAF 8 shifted focus from the technology architecture layer to the higher business, data and application layers. The domains higher in the stack were built on top of and depended upon the lower layers. Be open - leverage open and established standards and discourage the use of proprietary protocols or narrow implementations. Enterprise, Business and IT Architects at all levels who construct and govern architecture building blocks (ABBs) to enable the creation of effective solution building blocks. Understand your users and their needs and make that a priority for design decisions. Provide systems and controls to give end users flexibility and control over their resources. Enterprise architecture regards the enterprise as a large and complex system or system of systems. An architecture framework provides principles and practices for creating and using the architecture description of a system. It emerged from the desire to rationalize a messy IT estate. A change in syntax or semantics requires a new version. Use infrastructure and services that enable developers and administrators to manage application performance, cost and operational risk. Organization advice: including an EA Governance Model. Architecture Layers Harvard University’s vision for enterprise architecture is to articulate and drive to common solutions, standards, and opportunities for alignment in order to reduce IT complexity and …  In other words, Enterprise Architecture is not a business strategy, planning or management methodology. Middleware has historically reflected Information Technology solutions that could be shared by multiple users, such as shared Oracle databases. The application services are also referred to in service-oriented architecture (SOA). Thus the role of Middleware is to provide complex services to application teams in an approachable and robust way. understand the issues and opportunities with the current applications and technical architecture; develop a future state and migration path for the technology that supports the enterprise; provide business executives with a direction and decision making framework for IT capital expenditures; provide the information system (IS) with a blueprint for development. Indeed, there are advantages to adopting the SOA approach even if you’re not at the stage at which CISR says enterprises can reap its full benefits. In 1987, John Zachman, who was a marketing specialist at IBM, published the paper, A Framework for Information Systems Architecture. As such they must deliver the appropriate 'fit, form, and function' to the business owners. Ensure that all touchpoints of the user journey are optimized for a great user experience across all channels and devices for all users. Using middleware services as supporting components to the functional capabilities of applications can simplify development and support portability. Following a framework will give a team launching EA as a new practice a way to assemble and organize a cohesive set of models for use across the enterprise.  This was a five-layer reference model that illustrates the interrelationship of business, information system, and technology domains. Establishing and Maintaining An Enterprise Architecture Capability TOGAF started out taking a strategic and enterprise-wide, but technology-oriented, view. In 1998, The Federal CIO Council began developing the Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework (FEAF) in accordance with the priorities enunciated in Clinger-Cohen and issued it in 1999. Layer 1: Enterprise Governance; Layer 2: Business(es) Layer 3: Information (facilities) Layer 4: IT Infrastructure(s) All these layers and entities are part of a container entity like 'Enterprise', 'Organization' or Company. Transport Layer. Then and in later papers, Zachman used the word enterprise as a synonym for business. Most of the Enterprise Architecture Frameworks … Business Layer (business functions offering services to each other and to external entities). APIs are the preferred method of moving information between systems. Infrastructure encompasses hardware and virtualized platforms that operate applications, services, and their components. TOGAF 9.1 White Paper An Introduction to TOGAF Version 9.1. Ensure infrastructure services offer appropriate levels of security, configurability, resiliency and recoverability. Enterprise Architecture strives to align business information systems technology with given business strategy, goals and drivers. These architecture sub-layers are clearly related to one another via well-definable relations; integration of these sub-layers is a necessity for a cohesive and effective enterprise architecture design. Since Stephen Spewak's Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP) in 1993, and perhaps before then, it has been normal to divide enterprises architecture into four architecture domains. By 1997, Zachman had renamed and refocused his ISA framework as an EA framework; it remained a classification scheme for descriptive artifacts, not a process for planning systems or changes to systems. The view of architecture domains as layers can be presented thus: Each layer delegates work to the layer below. Enterprise Architecture (EA)is a way of organizing the operations and structure of a business. For many years, it has been common to regard the architecture domains as layers, with the idea that each layer contains components that execute processes and offer services to the layer above.  To manage the scale and complexity of this system, an architectural framework provides tools and approaches that help architects abstract from the level of detail at which builders work, to bring enterprise design tasks into focus and produce valuable architecture description documentation. Select and build applications that meet multiple needs and can support multiple organizations. and to engage business managers with the benefits that strategic cross-organisational process integration and/or standardisation could provide. The NIST Enterprise Architecture Model is a five-layered model for enterprise architecture, designed for organizing, planning, and building an integrated set of information and information technology architectures. Since Stephen Spewak's Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP) in 1993, and perhaps before then, it has been normal to divide enterprises architecture into four architecture domains. The technical services are typically supported by software products. CIOs can’t avoid SOA today. The five layers … Security is comprised of people, process, and technology, and done well needs to take all three into consideration. Encourage innovation and experimentation. Process advice: some kind of Architecture Development Method, with supporting guidance. EA provides 'road maps' to help chart the implementation of new and evolving applications to meet business needs. Use infrastructure and services that enable virtualization, abstraction, elasticity, and automation. Utilize the ‘defense in depth’ approach. It's an easy concept to define, but more difficult to implement effectively. Since Stephen Spewak’s Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP) in 1993, and perhaps before then, it has been normal to divide enterprises architecture into four architecture domains. 4.2Layers or Aspects of Enterprise Architecture In the 1980s, a four-layer division of system architecture came into use by system designers. Given IBM already employed BSP, Zachman had no need to provide planning process. ARCON – A Reference Architecture for Collaborative Networks – not focused on a single enterprise but rather on networks of enterprises, European Space Agency Architectural Framework (ESAAF) - a framework for European space-based Systems of Systems, Nederlandse Overheid Referentie Architectuur (NORA) – a reference framework from the Dutch Government, India Enterprise Architecture (IndEA) framework -, ASSIMPLER Framework – an architecture framework, based on the work of Mandar Vanarse at Wipro in 2002. Prioritize user impact in development and selection efforts. L.M. correspondence rules integrating those viewpoints cited before. By 1980, IBM's Business Systems Planning (BSP) was promoted as a method for analyzing and designing an organization's information architecture, with the following goals: In 1982, when working for IBM and with BSP, John Zachman outlined his framework for enterprise-level "Information Systems Architecture". In each layer, the components, the processes and the services can be defined at a coarse-grained level and decomposed into finer-grained components, processes and services. Shared services for access management, logging and other common needs reduce duplication of effort, help achieve economies of scale and can improve quality. In addition to three major framework components discussed above. An example of the EA domain and subdomains is in the image on the right. In 1989, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) published the NIST Enterprise Architecture Model. Evolution and reinvestment in applications are driven in part by changing business requirements, but also in part by transitions in technologies such as web-based applications, and cloud computing. Use services from other applications when available. Focus on using architecture patterns to achieve efficient results, modularity and enterprise-wide standardization. Enterprise architecture frameworks that are released as open source: Components of enterprise architecture framework, Enterprise architecture domains and subdomains, Types of enterprise architecture framework. What EA Does.  However, some still use the term Enterprise Architecture as a synonym for Business Architecture, rather than covering all four architecture domains - business, data, applications and technology. In addition, it made the agency CIO responsible for, “...developing, maintaining and facilitating the implementation of a sound and integrated IT architecture for the executive agency.”. Applications should deliver functionality that can be used in multiple organizations. Incorporate user feedback throughout the design, testing, and implementation process. The data view starts with the data classes which can be decomposed into data subjects which can be further decomposed into data entities. Align customer applications with Harvard’s IT direction. Applications designed for the cloud (cloud native, 12 factor) can more easily take advantage of cloud scaling, automation, DR and monitoring capabilities. , In 1986, the PRISM architecture framework was developed as a result of the research project sponsored by a group of companies, including IBM, which was seemingly the first published EA framework.. Obtain data only when needed in order to maximize data currency. Obtain data from other systems only when needed, except when coordinated snapshots are needed for consistency such as fiscal year closing.
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