A classification of the higher groups and genera of the coccid family. Effect of buprofezin on Icerya purchasi and Planococcus citri. Pittosporum tobira (Japanese pittosporum), Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (winged bean), http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm, KollÃ¡r J; Bakay L; PÃ¡stor M, 2016. Depuis 1888 les ennemis naturels de la Cochenille ont été introduits dans bien des pays avec des résultats appréciables. Meshram P B, Vijayaraghavan A, 2004. Cottony cushion scale infestation on acacia trees. Iceryine scale insects recorded from the Orient. 79-80. In: Technical Series in Agricultural Biosystematics and Plant Pathology, Sacramento, California, USA: California Department of Food and Agriculture. Taxonomic placing: Insecta, Hemimetabola, Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccomorpha, Coccoidea, Monophlebidae.. Common name: Cottony-cushion scale, fluted scale.. Geographical distribution: This pest occurs wherever citrus is grown. In addition, the use of insecticides prevents regulation by natural enemies, which has proved to be highly successful with this species. 6 (7), 3+] 377-562 pp. The cardinal ladybird is an important predator of the Cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchase Maskell, 1879 (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae), which if uncontrolled is a serious pest of citrus trees. 130 (5), 583-584. Israel Journal of Entomology, 29:261-264. Body red, legs and antennae black, covered by layer of white to cream colored wax, median area sometimes with lemon yellow wax, marginal areas with fringe of wax processes all about same length; margin of body with long crystalline rods. This scale is apparently native to Australia and made its way to California on acacia plants around 1868 or 1869 and in about ten years was causing damage to citrus groves in southern California (Ebeling 1959). Icerya purchasi. In Italy, trials on the effect of azadirachtin A (extracted from neem) on the development and fecundity of Rodolia cardinalis indicated that use of this organic insecticide can adversely affect biological control of the cottony cushion scale (Heimbach, 2002).Biological Control NHM, 1995. China Fruits, No.1:36-38. Weeden CR, Shelton AM, Li Y, Hoffman MP. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History, 17(2):103-104. Pesticide effectiveness test of several insecticides to control Icerya purchasi endangering Liquidambar formosana. The cottony cushion scale was described by Maskell (1878) from specimens sent to him by Dr. Purchas from Auckland, New Zealand. Figure 2. Matile-Ferrero D, Legrand J, Riffet X, 1999. Icerya purchasi Maskell. Icerya purchasi : adult with ovisac on Grevillea sp. In 1893, the owners of a nursery in Keene, Florida (Pinellas County) sent an inquiry to someone in California about the possibility of the vedalia beetle (a ladybug) being used to control other scale insects in Florida. In: Clausen CP, ed. The parasitoid Cryptochaetum iceryae has also proved to be effective in regulating I. purchasi populations. Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Special Publication, 89:1-98. Papadopoulou S; Chryssohoides C, 2012. Photograph by Division of Plant Industry. In: The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Rao (1951) reviewed the known species of Icerya living in the Oriental Region, and a revision of the known species in Australia is currently in progress. Bulletin de lâInstitut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Entomologie, 73:177-180. Body up to 5 mm long. UK, CAB International, 1971. Guidebook to scale insects of Taiwan. Annual Review of Entomology, 34:1-16. Ended: Sep 20, 2020. Indian Journal of Entomology, 12:39-66, 127-158. BEARDSLEY jr J W, 1966. Salisbury A; Booth RG, 2004. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 11: 220-223. Apparently interpreting this as a request for the ladybug, the California party sent a shipment of these ladybugs and included some cottony cushion scales as food for the ladybugs. Online. Les cochemilles de Corse (Hemiptera, Coccoidea). The cottony cushion scale can be distinguished easily from other scale insects in Florida. Debach P. 1973. Cottony cushion scale infestation on acacia trees. Journal fÃ¼r Kulturpflanzen. Icerya purchasi Name Homonyms Icerya purchasi Maskell, 1879 Common names cottony cushion scale in language. Amitava Konar, 1998. Gill RJ, 1993. Online Database Icerya purchasi Maskell, 1878 Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. Washington DC, USA: Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History, 26(2):89-90. http://www.benhs.org.uk. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. In: Van Driesche RG, ed. Icerya purchasi (Homoptera: Margarodidae) on Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae), a new host plant record for Greece. This scale is seldom found on the fruit. Verma S K, Gireesh Chand, Pankaj Kumar, 2012. Ascot, UK: International Institute of Biological Control (IIBC). Icerya purchasi Maskell Burmite Myanmar Burmese Amber insect fossil dinosaur age: Condition: New. Insects on plants in the Maldives and their management. Competition between the two natural enemies did not increase host survival and these studies provide strong support for the importation of multiple natural enemies. Peck SB; Heraty J; Landry B; Sinclair BJ, 1998. 26 (2), 89-90. http://www.benhs.org.uk. 38 (2), 380-386. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. Effects of Oikos (a. i. Azadirachtin A) on the vedalia ladybeetle Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Coccidae, Pseudococcidae, Ortheziidae, and Monophlebidae(Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of EspÃrito Santo, Brazil. I. purchasi living on plants such as Spartium junceum, which contain alkaloids, are not completely controlled by R. cardinalis. NHM, 1985. The minor families (Homoptera: Coccoidea). The history of the vedalia beetle importation to California and its impact on the development of biological control. Coccoidea species in Brandenburg. The body is partially or entirely covered with yellowish or white wax. Indian Forester. Wufeng, Taichung, Taiwan: Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute. Fauna of New Zealand, No. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp. Watson GW; Ooi PAC; Girling DJ, 1995. 67 (10), 337-341. http://www.journal-kulturpflanzen.de. They are winged with a dark red body and dark colored antennae. In: Vogt H, Vinuela E, eds. General information about Icerya purchasi (ICERPU) Name Language; Australian bug: English: cottony cushion scale: English: fluted scale Quezada JR; DeBach P, 1973.
Cottony cushion scale, a soft scale (Icerya purchasi). Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. First record of the cottony cushion scale Icerya purchasi (Hemiptera, Monophlebidae) in Slovakia - short communication. The insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen has been found to be as effective in controlling I. purchasi (Gokkes et al., 1989). Careful management is necessary when using pesticides against other pests if biological control of I. purchasi is in operation, because damage to the populations of biocontrol agent can cause an outbreak of I. purchasi, as recorded in South Africa by Hattingh and Tate (1995). Cottony cushion scale (I. purchasi); cluster of adults on a twig, Nairobi, Kenya. Chinese Journal of Biological Control. Cocciniglie. Pesticide effectiveness test of several insecticides to control Icerya purchasi endangering Liquidambar formosana. citrussköldlus in Swedish Bibliographic References. It is of Australian origin and has invaded the Middle East in the early years of the 20th century. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Most damage occurs from the feeding of the early immature stages of the scale on the leaves, where they settle in rows along the midrib and veins, and on the smaller twigs. Bioecological and population studies of the cottony-cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Mask. Maskell WM. Peck S B, Heraty J, Landry B, Sinclair B J, 1998. Biota Neotropica, 7(3):61-65. http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n3/en/fullpaper?bn00507032007+en, EPPO, 2014. NHM, 1981. 1999. First record of the cottony cushion scale Icerya purchasi (Hemiptera, Monophlebidae) in Slovakia - short communication. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London). Several life stages of the cottony cushion scales, Icerya purchasi Maskell, on a twig. Cottony cushion scales can have 2 - 3 generations per year. Female body oval-shaped and red-brown with black legs. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London). The nursery owners, who either did not see the scales or assumed they would be of no consequence, left the packing container near a citrus tree which eventually became infested. Population decline of Galapagos endemic Lepidoptera on Volcan Alcedo (Isabela Island, Galapagos Islands, Ecuador): an effect of the introduction of the cottony cushion scale? Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 16(4):441-444. Getu E, 1996. Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae and its use in forest pest control. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Icerya purchasi Maskell, 1878: Icerya purchasi (common name: cottony cushion scale) is a scale insect that feeds on more than 50 families of woody plants, most notably on Citrus and Pittosporum. The host was kangaroo acacia and the insect was named for Dr. Purchas. Biota Neotropica. Icerya purchasi (Maskell, 1878) Cottony cushion scale. Taxonomy; Ecology; Introduction; Distribution; References; The Cottony Cushion Scale is a self-fertile hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs). Italy: UniversitÃ di Catania. The scale insects of California. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History, 17(2):105-109. Journal of Zhejiang Forestry Science and Technology, 19(6):46-47. At that time only one other species was known in the genus Icerya (Maskell 1878). Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London). 11 (2), 11. Beardsley JW, 1966. NHM, 1988. Details about Icerya purchasi Maskell Burmite Myanmar Burmese Amber insect fossil dinosaur age See original listing. Hill MG, 1980. Icerya purchasi Maskell, cottony cushion scale (Hemiptera: Margarodidae), causing damage to ornamental plants growing outdoors in London. Technical Series in Agricultural Biosystematics and Plant Pathology Number 2. Horticultural Journal. Native to Australia. Evaluation of the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen (Tiger) as a control agent for the California red scale and the cottony-cushion scale. Tao C, 1999. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London). In the Spanish citrus industry, it is important to only use pesticides when absolutely necessary to ensure that the biological control agents of the citrus pests are not significantly injured; side-effect testing of pesticides on the control agents has been routinely carried out in Spain for many years (Jacas Miret and Garcia Mari, 2001). Culik MP; Martins Ddos S; Ventura JA; Peronti ALBG; Gullan PJ; Kondo T, 2007. 138 (2), 200. http://www.indianforester.org. Bennett F D, Alam M M, 1985. Bartlett BR, 1978. However, this was presumably from a new introduction from nursery stock in about 1895 (Gossard 1901). Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA). Studies in inland California (Quezada and DeBach, 1973) have shown that the two natural enemies seasonally share their prey in different proportions and are fairly even in their competitive abilities, Rodolia usually taking more prey during summer and autumn and Cryptochaetum taking more during winter and early spring. Revue FranÃ§aise dâEntomologie (N.S. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. A remarkable infestation of the cottony cushion scale Icerya purchasi Maskell in central … Figure 4. 267 pp. In: Bernardo U, Viggiani G, Vogt H, eds. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 56:309-356. Ants attending I. purchasi infestations to collect the sugary honeydew excreted (Getu, 1996), may defend the scales from attack by their natural enemies, so making the pest problem worse. http://www.unict.it/dipartimenti/biologia_animale/webnatur/insetti/omotteri/coccoidea.htm. cottony cushion scale in language. The following account of the introduction of this scale insect into Florida is largely taken from Gossard (1901). In: Technical Document No. Iceryine scale insects recorded from the Orient. It is the only species of Icerya present in Florida. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. (2003). NHM, 1977. Benth. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Figure 5. Icerya purchasi Maskell (INRA / Antibes) Novius (Rodolia) cardinalis Originating from Australia, this ladybird was introduced at the end of the 19th century to be used as a beneficial insect in biological control. Sacramento, California, USA: California Department of Food and Agriculture, 79-80. An annotated check-list of the insects and allied terrestrial arthropods of Barbados. A remarkable infestation of the cottony cushion scale Icerya purchasi Maskell in central Paris (France) (Hemiptera, Margarodidae). 124 pp. List of Coccoidea (Homoptera) of China. Good control was achieved when applied alone or with 0.5% mineral oil (Peleg, 1989). Indian Journal of Entomology. Vedalia immediately proved highly effective in controlling I. purchasi and has subsequently been distributed to about 57 countries (Bartlett, 1978). In more arid and hot inland areas, vedalia beetles are more effective. /. 39 (1), 95-96. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. Insects of Micronesia, Homoptera: Coccoidea. Icerya purchasi Maskell, 1879, Cottony Cushion Scale General Description. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Introduced insect fauna of an oceanic archipelago: the GalÃ¡pagos Islands, Ecuador. Meshram PB; Vijayaraghavan A, 2004. Plant Protection Science. As the egg sac is formed the scale’s abdomen becomes more and more tilted until the scale appears to be standing on its head. IOBC-WPRS Working Group for Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms. Bermuda;Chile;Egypt;India;Israel;New Zealand;Peru;Sao Tome and Principe;South Australia;St Kitts Nevis;USA, Acacia baileyana; Acalypha; Citrus; Erythrina umbrosus; fruit trees; ornamental plants; roses; Tamarix, Antigua; Ascension; Australia; South Australia; Bahamas; Barbados; Bermuda; California; Cayman Islands; Chile; Cyprus; Ecuador; Egypt; Ethiopia; France; Greece; Guam; Hawaii; Hong Kong; Israel; Italy; Kenya; Madagascar; Malta; Montserrat; New Zealand; Peru; Philippines; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Republic of Georgia; Sao Tome and Principe; Senegal; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; St Helena; St Kitts Nevis; Switzerland; Taiwan; Uruguay; USA; USSR; Venezuela; Yugoslavia, Acacia; Acacia baileyana; Acalypha; Casuarina; Citrus; fruit trees; orchards; ornamental plants; pigeon peas; roses; Tamarix, Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye, Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches. Ensuring compatibility of biological control of Icerya purchasi Maskell with conservation in GalÃ¡pagos: development of a procedure to evaluate risk. This scale is apparently native to Australia and made its way to California on acacia plants around 1868 or 1869 and in about ten years was causing … (Les cochemilles de Corse (Hemiptera, Coccoidea)). Damage is mostly caused by sap depletion; the shoots dry up, defoliation occurs and branches or whole trees may die. Proceedings of a meeting (3-6 October, 2001), San Michele AllâAdige, Trento, Italy: Bulletin OILB SROP, 25(11):81-88. Proceedings of the VII International Symposium of Scale Insect Studies, Bet Dagan, Israel, June 12-17 1994. Waterhouse D F, 1993. Male has wings, but is rarely seen. Matile-Ferrero D; Legrand J; Riffet X, 1999. Photograph by Division of Plant Industry. The brownish adult (3 mm long) produces a white ridged cottony egg sack that is attached to her rear (6 mm long). Insects of Micronesia. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London). The antennae are six-segmented. However, numerous records on other host plants are in the Division of Plant Industry insect files. Part 2. In: Ambienti naturali e antitropici di Sicilia. (2005). 42 (1), 148-149. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2338 DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2338.2012.02535.x. Caltagirone LE; Doutt RL, 1989. The newly hatched nymphs are bright red with dark antennae and thin brown legs. Agricultural Handbook. NHM, 1971. http://www.soihs.it. Map 51 (Revised). In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. purchasi has been known in the Azores The host was kangaroo acacia and the insect was named for Dr. Purchas. Wind dispersal of the coccid Icerya seychellarum (Margarodidae: Homoptera) on Aldabra Atoll. Caltagirone and Doutt (1989) suggested that these plants (with residual populations of the scale) provide permanent sources of vedalia that will disperse into new infestations of scale on citrus and bring them under control. This is the primary dispersal stage. Gokkes M; Eshel G; Tadmor U, 1989. APPPC, 1987. A new report of Icerya purchasi Maskell (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) as a pest of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London). The scale insects of California. A classification of the higher groups and genera of the coccid family. (Une surprenante infestation de la cochenille Australienne Icerya purchasi Maskell en plein Paris [Hemiptera, Margarodidae].). Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. http://www.unict.it/dipartimenti/biologia_animale/webnatur/insetti/omotteri/coccoidea.htm. ), 21(4):175-178. The cottony cushion scale is now widespread throughout the world wherever citrus is grown (Ebeling 1959). In 1888, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) imported various natural enemies from Australia, including the vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research, 82(3):1175-1182. If large numbers of ants attend a heavy infestation of the scale, it may be worthwhile controlling the ants to help the natural enemies bring the scale population under control quickly. Insects on plants in the Maldives and their management. EPPO Global database. Clausen CP, 1978. Field trials for the control of chaff scale and Florida wax scale in citrus orchards with Tiger (pyriproxifen). 844 p. Ebeling W. 1959. If self-fertilization occurs only hermaphrodites are produced; however, when a hermaphrodite mates with a male, more males and hermaphrodites are produced (Ebeling 1959). DOI:10.1603/022.038.0210, Rubiales D, FernÃ¡ndez-Aparicio M, 2009. Margarodidae (Insecta: Hemiptera). Icerya purchasi Maskell 1879: 221. 7 (3), 61-65. http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n3/en/fullpaper?bn00507032007+en DOI:10.1590/S1676-06032007000300006. Bridgetown, Barbados: Caribbean Agricultural Research & Development Institute.
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