Rock formations that date to this period are collectively named the Te Herenga Formation, and today these formations be seen at Pinnacle Ridge, Te Herenga Ridge, and Whakapapanui Valley, all on the northwestern slopes of Ruapehu. Ruapehu sits on a basement of Mesozoic greywacke overlain by a thin layer of sediments of the Wanganui Basin, composed of sands, silts, shell beds, and limestone. Small eruptions only affect the summit plateau around the Crater Lake, however the larger ones can generate lahars down the slopes. , Active stratovolcano at the south of the North Island of New Zealand', Mt Ruapehu from Tongariro Northern Circuit, 2015, Eastern Ruapehu Lahar Alarm and Warning System, List of mountains of New Zealand by height, "GeoNet Volcanic Alert Bulletin RUA – 2020/08", https://teara.govt.nz/en/historic-volcanic-activity/page-4, "Changes made since Ruapehu's eruptions / Media Releases and News / News and Events / Home - GNS Science", "Photos: Lahar could have been much worse", "Mt Ruapehu eruption survivor William Pike inspires a generation of Kiwi 'Pike-lets, "GeoNet Volcanic Alert Bulletin RUA-2007/03", "GeoNet Volcanic Alert Bulletin RUA-2007/02", "Scientists monitoring Ruapehu as crater lake heats up", "Te Wai ā-moe, Mt Ruapehu: Increases in lake temperature and seismic activity", "Volcanic risk in Tongariro National Park", "Monitoring volcanic unrest / Ruapehu / New Zealand Volcanoes / Volcanoes / Science Topics / Learning / Home - GNS Science", "Japanese survives five days in blizzard", "Northland cops it as storm sweeps island", "Interactive Australia / New Zealand Koppen-Geiger Climate Classification Map", Ruapehu Eruption resources blog continuous since 1995 with new activity reported as it happens, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mount_Ruapehu&oldid=990413088, Short description is different from Wikidata, Use New Zealand English from November 2012, All Wikipedia articles written in New Zealand English, Pages using infobox mountain with language parameter, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 November 2020, at 10:05. Ruapehu, the largest active volcano in New Zealand, is the highest point in the North Island and has three major peaks: Tahurangi (2,797 m), Te Heuheu (2,755 m) and Paretetaitonga (2,751 m). One of them, a 22-year-old primary school teacher, had a leg pinned and crushed by a boulder as the water subsided.  Evidence suggests that an open-vent system such as this has been in place throughout Ruapehu's 250,000 year history. In recorded history, major eruptions have been about 50 years apart, in 1895, 1945 and 1995–1996. There are two active vents under the lake, dubbed North Vent and Central Vent. The Mangawhero Formation can be found over most of modern Ruapehu, and it forms most of the mountain's high peaks as well as the Turoa skifield. These cycles last weeks-to-months. Two climbers were caught in the blast at a hut 600 m from the vent.  Volcanism at Ruapehu is caused by the subduction of the Pacific Plate under the Australian Plate at the Hikurangi Trench to the east of the North Island. Chemical analysis of lake water collected on 9 October showed no significant changes in the makeup of the lake waters since the previous sample collected on 9 August. Explosive eruptions on 11 October emptied Crater Lake of water. , At 11:22 a.m. 18 March 2007, the tephra dam which had been holding back Crater Lake burst, sending a lahar down the mountain. An eruption may occur at any level, and levels may not move in sequence as activity can change rapidly. Other key chemical indicators such as the respective water concentrations in Mg (magnesium) and Cl (chloride) can be used to track whether the uprising fluids travel through new fractures or in the proximity of magma. A warning system, the Eastern Ruapehu Lahar Alarm and Warning System (ERLAWS) system was installed on the mountain in 2000 to detect such a collapse and alert the relevant authorities. "Of course I'd like to have my leg, and be able to go higher, faster, further. Ruapehu erupted at 10:24 p.m. on 4 October 2006.  The eruptions also caused closures to the three ski fields on the mountain, costing the region an estimated $100 million in lost revenue..  Ruapehu has been built in four distinct stages of relatively intense eruptive activity followed by periods of relative quiet. After a peak of moderate strength in early March, the tremor declined slowly, almost in parallel to the lake’s cooling trend.  The explosive phase of the eruption lasted for less than a minute and blasted ash, mud, and rocks northward, reaching to about 2 km from Crater Lake. Ruapehu has two commercial ski fields, Whakapapa on the northern side and Turoa on the southern slope. Ruapehu is one of New Zealand’s most active volcanoes, with ten eruptions since 1861. Chemical analysis of the water in Crater Lake is regularly undertaken along with airborne gas measurements.  The same storm also trapped an experienced Japanese mountaineer when the weather unexpectedly closed in on him, but he built a snow cave and sheltered in it until he was rescued days later. There was no serious damage and no injuries. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have increased.
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