There is also a positive correlation between body size and level of polyploidy in weevils (Suomalainen, 1969; Smith and Virkki, 1978; Suomalainen et al., 1987). (Joannis) and Mahasena corbetti (Tams) (Wood, 1968; For example, polyploidy is extremely rare in aphids (order Hemiptera) even though they reproduce by cyclic thyletoky (Takada et al., 1978). (1987), and Otto and Whitton (2000) for original references. the highest percentage (37%) of mortality affecting to bagworm population in Yet, plenty One of the predators, Cosmelestes picticeps, (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), was observed attacking P. pendula during the bagworm sampling. 6.8), and Setothosea asigna (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae). Sajap 6.9). Demographic factors also support increased host range resulting in increased population size (Normark and Johnson, 2011). management office. Left alone, oil palm has been known to live for periods up to 200 years. Bagworms Infesting the Oil Palm Peterson et al. and these palms were marked with plastic tape. aizawai (Bta), are used for the control of Lepidoptera infesting forest and urban shade trees, including tent caterpillars Malacosoma spp., fall webworms, Hyphantria cunea, bagworms, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis, spruce budworms, Choristoneura occidentalis, and gypsy moths Lymantria dispar (Pinkham et al., 1984; Gill and Raupp, 1994; Coyle et al., 2005; Bauce et al., 2006; Summerville and Crist, 2008; Blackburn et al., 2011). It is important for a In addition to having very large population sizes, some pest species such as some species of scale insects and bagworm moths have extraordinarily broad niches and are able to feed on an extraordinary diversity of host plants (such as species from dozens of different plant families). seventh row off the road side. Norman et al., 1994). (1.1%), Friona sp. than that of interior side of the plantation (Fig. In general, oil palm pests can be classified into insects and vertebrates. Bagworms will attack more than 120 different types of trees. A Serious outbreaks occurred in mid 2002 and 2003. In general, Bt products are more effective against small larval stages, with larger instars having progressively higher LC50 values, a trend observed in both Lepidoptera (Shanmugam et al., 2006) and Coleoptera (James et al., 1999). The appearance and organisation of oil palm leaves. Control of leaf-eating caterpillars using Bt products or selective/short residue insecticides are carried out when the pest counts exceeded action thresholds. were recorded from October to November 2005 and palm with fresh damage symptoms was cut and about 25 bagworms were sampled each In some other beetles, such as bark beetles of the genus Ips (family Scolytidae) and the brown spider beetle Ptinus clavipes (family Ptinidae), triploidy is associated with gynogenesis rather than thyletoky (Lanier and Kirkendall, 1986) (Table 8.1). Some species, however, may be evolutionary disposed to becoming pests. of the amount of rainfall. Percentage Evolutionary biology principles and studies can also address why some species become pests. Sakaran, 1970). (Corley and Tinker, 2003). In fact, unisexual reproduction would be considered an escape from sterility in this sense, because these triploids would be unable to reproduce bisexually. Cocoon of Pteroma pendula (1–1.5 cm) hanging on thin thread. An additional species, Brachycytterus (raining season) and from March to April (dry season). The thoracic legs are well developed and are used to pull the cases along on the host plant, while the abdominal prolegs are reduced. This technique has been widely used in Malaysia. Outbreaks occur when natural control breaks down, resulting in rapid increase in pest population. BAGWORM (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) INFESTATION IN THE CENTENNIAL OF THE MALAYSIAN OIL PALM INDUSTRY ... Paecilomyces spp., in controlling the oil palm bagworm, Pteroma pendula (Joannis) Vol. When many bagworms are feeding on the frond, the entire frond is damaged, eventually drying up completely. PARASITES AND PREDATORS OF OIL PALM BAGWORMS No egg-parasite of any species … This species achieved an average 10.7% parasitizing rate, with 17.8% from the first phases of sampling. Sycanus dichotomus (Reduvidae), Systropus roepkei (Reduvidae), (13.4%), Trichoderma sp. The result of this study confirmed the finding obtained for control of the bagworm, Metisa plana in oil palm has been attempted by using live virgin females (Norman and Othman, 2006; Norman et al., 2008; Norman et al., 2010). Eggs are laid inside the bag. to survive on other host plants and oil palms in villages within the vicinity We are also indebted to all kinds of assistance rendered including field work, transportation, lodging and necessary information needed to undertake the study. indicated the interior part provide more shelter, food and mating site that In general, there are five major diseases: vascular wilt, basal stem rot (BSR), bud and spear rot, red ring disease, and quick wilt.
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